所有的early-juvenile fish呈现相同的特点。解释：最后一段=> False
Larval-stage: live in the (5. open sea)
Lizard Island Study
Methods: 10. artificial lights, 11. Laboratory
题目：Odd and curious money
14. silver ingots15. it is hard to obtain16. worth a higher value17. the chief of a tribe
把银质奢侈品融化制成20. obans最重的日本货币21. Penny: 22. Cross在津巴布韦地区依然沿用
巴比伦货币：24. Japanese family tree用在亚洲北部的几个国家
<span style="font-family:;" "="">Numismatics is the study or collection of currency, including coins, tokens, paper money, and related objects. While numismatists are often characterized as students or collectors of coins, the discipline also includes the broader study of money and other payment media used to resolve debts and the exchange of goods. Early money used by people is referred to as ''Odd and Curious", but the use of other goods in barter exchange is excluded, even where used as a circulating currency (e.g., cigarettes in prison). The Kyrgyz people used horses as the principal currency unit and gave small change in lambskins;  the lambskins may be sui table for numismatic Study, but the horse is not. Many objects have been used for centuries, such as cowry shells, precious metals and gems.
Today, most transactions take place by a form of payment with either inherent, Standardized or credit value. Numismatic value may be used to refer to the value in excess of the monetary value conferred by law. This is also known as the "collector value. " Economic and historical studies of money's use and development are an integral part of the numismatists' study of money's physical embodiment.
Money itself is made to be a scarce good throughout its history, although it does not have to be. Many items have been used as money, from naturally scarce precious metals and cowry shells through cigarettes to entirely artificial money, called fiat money, such as banknotes. Many complementary currencies use time as a unit of measure, using mutual credit accounting that keeps the balance of money intact.
Modern money (and most ancient money too) is essentially a token - an abstraction. Paper currency is perhaps the most common type of physical money today. However, goods such as gold or silver retain many of the essential properties of money.
Coin collecting may have existed in ancient times. Caesar Augustus gave "coins of every device, including old pieces of the kings and foreign money" as saturnalia gifts. Petrarch, who wrote in a letter that he was of ten approached by vine diggers with old coins asking him to buy or to identify the ruler, is credited as the first Renaissance col lector. Petrarch presented a collection of Roman coins to Emperor Charles IV in 1355.
Can you spot the difference?
Milan Verma, a scientist at Queen Mary, explains: "It's the phenomenon where seemingly striking or obvious changes are not noticed." He and his colleagues are asking volunteers to play the game-which involves looking at a screen as it flashes between two images of the same scene.
But I was Quickly reminded that I am just as "change blind" as the next person. As an image of an iceberg scene with five penguins on it flashed in front of me, I stared blankly, unable to see a difference.
"I will let you off - there is a lot going on in this image, " Dr Verma reassured me. "But it is quite a big change. " He had to give me a clue - directing me to the area of the image where the change occurred - before I realised that a whole chunk of iceberg was missing in the post change image.
That represented one of the fundamental factors about change blindness; a whole chunk of iceberg might seem like an easier thing to spot than the stripe on a butterfly wing, but it is not as obvious to the human brain.
"The butterfly image is easy because the changed scene violates our expectations,” explains Dr Verma. "We expect butterflies to be symmetrical - to have two identically marked wings - so one that isn't really stands out to us.”
Neuroscientists, as well as developers of artificial intelligence, have been interested in this facet of human perception for many years. Infact, the Queen Mary team incorporate their biological findings into the design of robots - Studying the basis of human vision and perception in order to artificially recreate it.
And Dr Verma says this might be the first truly unbiased scientific Study of change blindness. "Previously, scientists have studied this by manually manipulating pictures, " he said. "So they'd use... image manipulation software, make a deliberate change and then ask viewers: 'Can you see the change, yes or no?’ This, he says, is cheating. If a human scientist makes a change to a picture, they are making a very human decision about what and where that change is - choosing to remove the bird from the corner of the park view, or to change the color of the sofa in a living room scene. "So they're making some subjective judgement about how noticeable they think the change is. "
In this Study, Dr Verma and his colleague and supervisor, Professor Peter McOwan, created an algorithm that meant the computer "decided" how to change the image. Professor McOwan told BBC News: "This is, as far as I'm aware, the first time ever that artificial intelligence [Al] technology has been used to generate experimental stimuli to test human percept ion. "It brings together two interesting fields of study- Al and human perception. Dr Verma and Professor McOwen designed software that underlies the game's ability to make a change to each image. Dr Verma describes this as a "genetic algorithm". It essentially tells the computer to change the images in a process akin to evolution.
"It' S like a process of survival of the fittest, " explained Dr Verma. "Darwin suggested that a fit individual is one that can best survive in its Surroundings - like a moth that can camouflage with the bark of a tree. "
<span style="line-height:115%;font-family:;" "="">But in this case "fitness" is determined by the smallest difference between the pre-and post-change scenes, in terms of how attention-grabbing they are.
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