2016年11月3日A类雅思阅读考试真题回忆



年11月03日 雅思阅读考题回忆

旧:20151107

20120609

题材:生物

题型:判断4;填空9

判断4:

大的物种有生存的优势是因为游得快。解释:还有其他的原因:比如天敌的数量=> False

大的物种视力相对较好。解释:文中提出体积大的物种相对有力量,而且视力发展较好。=>True

所有的early-juvenile fish呈现相同的特点。解释:最后一段=> False

解释:最后一段,并不一定=> False

Larval-stage:  live in the (5. open sea)

Lizard  Island Study

Methods:  10. artificial lights, 11. Laboratory

Passage Two

题目:Odd and curious money

文章主旨:本文主要讲解不同国家古老钱币的形状,作用和意义。

14. silver ingots15. it is hard to obtain16. worth a higher value17. the chief of a tribe

货币怎样制造的:配对 8:

把银质奢侈品融化制成20.  obans最重的日本货币21.  Penny: 22.  Cross在津巴布韦地区依然沿用

巴比伦货币:24.  Japanese family tree用在亚洲北部的几个国家

给自己的新娘准备的项链

鲸鱼骨:相似文章阅读:

<span style="font-family:;" "="">Numismatics is the study or collection of currency, including coins,  tokens, paper money, and related objects. While numismatists are often  characterized as students or collectors of coins, the discipline also  includes the broader study of money and other payment media used to resolve  debts and the exchange of goods. Early money used by people is referred to as  ''Odd and Curious", but the use of other goods in barter exchange is  excluded, even where used as a circulating currency (e.g., cigarettes in  prison). The Kyrgyz people used horses as the principal currency unit and  gave small change in lambskins; [1] the lambskins may be sui table for  numismatic Study, but the horse is not. Many objects have been used for  centuries, such as cowry shells, precious metals and gems.

Today, most transactions take place by a form of payment with either  inherent, Standardized or credit value. Numismatic value may be used to refer  to the value in excess of the monetary value conferred by law. This is also known  as the "collector value. " Economic and historical studies of money's  use and development are an integral part of the numismatists' study of  money's physical embodiment.

Money itself is made to be a scarce good throughout its history,  although it does not have to be. Many items have been used as money, from  naturally scarce precious metals and cowry shells through cigarettes to entirely  artificial money, called fiat money, such as banknotes. Many complementary  currencies use time as a unit of measure, using mutual credit accounting that  keeps the balance of money intact.

Modern money (and most ancient money too) is essentially a token - an  abstraction. Paper currency is perhaps the most common type of physical money  today. However, goods such as gold or silver retain many of the essential  properties of money.

Coin collecting may have existed in ancient times. Caesar Augustus gave  "coins of every device, including old pieces of the kings and foreign  money" as saturnalia gifts. [7]Petrarch, who wrote in a letter that he  was of ten approached by vine diggers with old coins asking him to buy or to  identify the ruler, is credited as the first Renaissance col lector. Petrarch  presented a collection of Roman coins to Emperor Charles IV in 1355.

Passage Three

题材:心理

题型:人名配对4;判断5;细节配对5

人名配对4:

28. D

30. F

31. False

33. False

35. True

36. C

38. E

40. G

Can you spot the difference?

Milan Verma, a scientist at  Queen Mary, explains: "It's the phenomenon where seemingly striking or  obvious changes are not noticed." He and his colleagues are asking  volunteers to play the game-which involves looking at a screen as it flashes  between two images of the same scene.

But I was Quickly reminded that  I am just as "change blind" as the next person. As an image of an  iceberg scene with five penguins on it flashed in front of me, I stared  blankly, unable to see a difference.

"I will let you off - there  is a lot going on in this image, " Dr Verma reassured me. "But it  is quite a big change. " He had to give me a clue - directing me to the  area of the image where the change occurred - before I realised that a whole  chunk of iceberg was missing in the post change image.

That represented one of the  fundamental factors about change blindness; a whole chunk of iceberg might  seem like an easier thing to spot than the stripe on a butterfly wing, but it  is not as obvious to the human brain.

"The butterfly image is  easy because the changed scene violates our expectations,” explains Dr Verma.  "We expect butterflies to be symmetrical - to have two identically  marked wings - so one that isn't really stands out to us.”

Neuroscientists, as well as  developers of artificial intelligence, have been interested in this facet of  human perception for many years. Infact, the Queen Mary team incorporate  their biological findings into the design of robots - Studying the basis of  human vision and perception in order to artificially recreate it.

And Dr Verma says this might be  the first truly unbiased scientific Study of change blindness. "Previously,  scientists have studied this by manually manipulating pictures, " he  said. "So they'd use... image manipulation software, make a deliberate  change and then ask viewers: 'Can you see the change, yes or no?’ This, he  says, is cheating. If a human scientist makes a change to a picture, they are  making a very human decision about what and where that change is - choosing  to remove the bird from the corner of the park view, or to change the color  of the sofa in a living room scene. "So they're making some subjective  judgement about how noticeable they think the change is. "

In this Study, Dr Verma and his  colleague and supervisor, Professor Peter McOwan, created an algorithm that  meant the computer "decided" how to change the image. Professor  McOwan told BBC News: "This is, as far as I'm aware, the first time ever  that artificial intelligence [Al] technology has been used to generate  experimental stimuli to test human percept ion. "It brings together two  interesting fields of study- Al and human perception. Dr Verma and Professor  McOwen designed software that underlies the game's ability to make a change  to each image. Dr Verma describes this as a "genetic algorithm". It  essentially tells the computer to change the images in a process akin to  evolution.

"It' S like a process of  survival of the fittest, " explained Dr Verma. "Darwin suggested  that a fit individual is one that can best survive in its Surroundings - like  a moth that can camouflage with the bark of a tree. "

<span style="line-height:115%;font-family:;" "="">But in this case  "fitness" is determined by the smallest difference between the  pre-and post-change scenes, in terms of how attention-grabbing they are.


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